BOX SASH WINDOWS
A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels, or "sashes".The individual sashes are traditionally paned windows, but can now contain an individual sheet (or sheets, in the case of double glazing) of glass.
The oldest surviving examples of sash windows were installed in England in the 1670s.
The sash window is often found in Georgian and Victorian houses, and the classic arrangement has three panes across by two up on each of two sashes, giving a six over six-panel window, although this is by no means a fixed rule. Innumerable late Victorian and Edwardian suburban houses were built in England using standard sash window units approximately 4 feet (1.2 m) in width, but older, hand-made units could be of any size.
A casement is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges at the side. They are used singly or in pairs within a common frame, in which case they are hinged on the outside. Casement windows are often held open using a casement stay. Windows hinged at the top are referred to as awning windows, and ones hinged at the bottom are called hoppers.
Throughout the British Isles, casement windows were common before the sash window was introduced, and usually metal with leaded glass—glass panes held in place with strips of lead. These casement windows usually were hinged on the side and opened inward. By the start of the Victorian era, opening casements and frames were constructed from timber in their entirety. The windows were covered by functional exterior shutters, which opened outward. Variants of casement windows are still the norm in many European countries.
A door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows ingress into and egress from an enclosure. The created opening in the wall is a doorway or portal. A door's essential and primary purpose is to provide security by controlling access to the doorway (portal).
French doors are derived from an original French design called the casement door. It is a door with lites where all or some panels would be in a casement door. A French door traditionally has a molded panel at the bottom of the door. It is called a French window when used in a pair as double-leaved doors with large glass panels in each door leaf, and in which the doors may swing out (typically) as well as in.
A gate or gateway is a point of entry to or from a space enclosed by walls. The word derived from old Norse "gat", meaning road or path. The concept originally referred to the gap or hole in the wall or fence, rather than a barrier which closed it. Gates may prevent or control the entry or exit of individuals, or they may be merely decorative. The moving part or parts of a gateway may be considered "doors", as they are fixed at one side whilst opening and closing like one.
A fence is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and is usually constructed from posts that are connected by boards. A fence differs from a wall in not having a solid foundation along its whole length.
STAIRS-INTERNAL / EXTERNAL
Stairs, a stairway, a staircase, a stairwell, or a flight of stairs is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairs may be straight, round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles.